Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective


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In Australia social workers have been involved in the delivery of income maintenance programs for some years, taking an advocacy role, working in community development and working with staff to improve delivery. In Hong Kong social workers have become increasingly involved in welfare-to-work programs, partly as an opportunity to engage in welfare reform debates and poverty-related work.

In the USA and the UK, by contrast, there is very little direct involvement by university-educated social workers in these programs and services are often provided by career civil servants with little or no social work education. In making links to the wider policy context, it is clear that labor market and wage policies are very important. In the US, in particular, there is very little recognition of links between child welfare, poverty and income support systems. The UK, however, is implementing welfare-to-work in the context of a specific national anti-poverty policy goal that is expressed in terms of the elimination of child poverty.

And finally, it is important to assess the extent to which welfare-to-work policy developments are in tune with public opinion. Many people without paid work want to work and often welcome the help that they can receive under these programs. However, the extent of public support for employment obligations and the compulsion to enforce them varies across countries and among different groups of people in need youth vs.

In particular there are very different views about the right balance between child rearing care work inside the home and paid work outside the home, especially in relationship to lone mothers. Obligations for single mothers to work full time, as in USA, are likely to place immense pressure on their capacity to also provide care for their children, even if public childcare were substantially expanded. In these approaches, welfare rights are viewed as collective rights for the benefit of society as a whole and not simply as individual entitlements.

Practice Perspectives It is well-known that the professional backgrounds of persons in senior policy positions in government can have a significant impact on the multiple administrative guidelines generated to implement public policy. A similar pattern can now be seen in Australia with respect to implementing welfare-to-work programs that are guided by senior social workers in the national government.

However, today it appears that the reforms in national welfare-to- work programs in the US and UK are being implemented by senior policy officials with backgrounds in economics and political science and little experience in delivering services to poor people. Until more social workers are educated and advance their careers into senior positions in welfare-to-work programs, this situation is not likely to change. So, how might social workers be better prepared to assume leadership roles related to the critical issues of poverty reduction and work enhancement?

Two practice domains seem relevant to this analysis: 1 policy practice, and 2 service delivery. This approach to policy practice suggests that ongoing policy analysis is a form of continuous value clarification in the UK, often expressed in the form of government policy papers that provide administrative guidelines. This unusual form of review and clarification is based on a demonstrated commitment to monitoring the policy implementation process that reflects the evolving values of the welfare state. In addition to this top-down perspective of policy practice, there is also a bottom-up view that seeks to minimize discrimination and stigmatization by collecting data from service users, especially efforts to understand the life-cycle of service users and adjust the implementation of public policy accordingly.

For example, the implementation of welfare-to-work programs in Hong Kong reflects a tri-focal perspective that includes the client, the community, and government policy makers. The goals include advocating for the needs of client populations through community advocacy organizations that seek to influence the development and implementation of public policy. When it became clear that there were limits to the effectiveness of welfare-to-work programs e.

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The issue of discretion is played out in multiple ways. At the front line level, it involves efforts on the part of staff employed in welfare-to-work programs to either find multiple ways to be of assistance to those in need the social work perspective or to find ways to limit benefits the taxpayer accountability perspective demonstrated by government bureaucrats. Discretion is also found at the managerial level where efforts are made to either contract with local service providers who have expertise relevant to the client population or by using contracting to reduce costs and devolve policy implementation authority from the national or state government to community-based non-profit organizations Austin, The use of discretion in implementing public policy at the worker levels or at the managerial levels represents another way in which values permeate the implementation of welfare-to-work programs.

As demonstrated in the case of Hong Kong, funding from the Jockey Clubs represents the unusual entry of private philanthropy into the domain of welfare-to-work program design and innovation. As noted in both of the articles in this Special Issue on clients with learning difficulties and those with mental illness, paid work can be a central part of service delivery and the promotion of self-worth. Similarly, the cross-over services in child welfare reflect the tensions of helping mothers who are having difficulty parenting their children while also trying to maintain employment.

The role of work or employment in the lives of different client populations may not receive sufficient attention by service providers. Similarly, the collective voices of service users advocacy organizations provide additional challenges for service providers who are accustomed to dealing with clients as part of a caseload rather than as a population of citizens with rights and responsibilities. Some of the most profound challenges emerging out of welfare-to-work programs relate to the education of future social workers. While an understanding of poverty has been an important foundation for the education of social workers over the past century, it is not clear how this theme appears in current university social work curricula and how extensively it is treated.

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While it is difficult to imagine social policy courses that do not mention poverty, to what extent does it receive attention beyond income maintenance policies and programs? Used books may not include working access code. Used books will not include dust jackets. Seller Inventory N. Seller Inventory BTE Book Description Condition: New. Publisher: Cengage Learning , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available.

Brooks/Cole Empowerment Series: Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs by Elizabeth A. Segal

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Same as Gerontology ME. Topics include theories of aging, economic factors, changing roles, social relationships, and special populations. Weekly seminars organized around key aspect of social gerontology. Lecture, three hours; outside study, nine hours. Historical overview of American social policy dealing with three core societal problems: poverty, sickness, and joblessness.

Programs developed by governments to ameliorate these problems have typically been public insurance programs or cash transfers such as unemployment insurance, welfare, and Social Security. Collectively these programs are known as "the welfare state"; examination of origins of the U.

Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour; outside study, eight hours. Didactic component with focus on development of basic skills in the areas of research. Students select one field of observation experience module from a number of field settings. Requisite: course In field practicum students are placed in a specific agency where they combine observation of agency functions with participation in specific agency tasks and roles under instructional supervision of an agency mentor and a UCLA faculty member.

Course of human aging charted in ways that are based on variety of recent research frontiers.

Use of conceptual frameworks to increase relevance of aging to students' lives and enhance their critical thinking--biopsychosocial approach that is based on recognition that aging is inherently interdisciplinary phenomenon, and life course perspective that is distinguished by analytical framework it provides for understanding interplay between human lives and changing social structures, and allows students to understand how events, successes, and losses at one stage of life can have important effects later in life.

Focus on individuals as they age within one particular sociohistorical context. Same as Urban Planning M Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Analysis and praxis of public problems. Taking up case of persistent inequality in liberal democracies, coverage of key frameworks and methodologies for understanding and analyzing poverty and inequality and examination of forms of action, from role of government to social movements, that seek to intervene in such problems. Study of problems, programs, policies, and politics in globally interconnected, transnational world, while avoiding analytical divide between global north and global south.

Seminar, three hours; service learning, four hours; outside study, five hours. Course A is requisite to B. History and roles of social welfare policy within government, organizations, and communities. Reflections about service-learning site experiences, with application of issues related to lecture and seminar readings.

In Progress grading credit to be given only on completion of course B. Current research and policy issues concerning poverty in the U. Overview of measurements and characteristics of poor people; alternative theoretical explanations of poverty; historical overview of major social welfare policies to combat poverty, particularly Aid to Families with Dependent Children AFDC and Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act PROWA ; and critical appraisal of recently enacted state welfare reform policies.

Relationship between research knowledge about poverty and current policies, and effects of gender, ethnicity, and class on patterns of poverty and policy responses. Lecture, three hours. Theoretical and practical foundation for understanding and depicting demographic composition of communities and for determining community needs.


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Use of systems theory as organizing framework. Community-level interventions are affected by community's social ecology, culture, economic system, political system, ethnic composition, and class structure. Agencies often seek to define community needs and develop interventions to respond to those needs. Knowledge of community infrastructure necessary for ascertaining its strengths and resources that can be mobilized for addressing and responding to community needs, issues, and concerns.

Social service agencies and communities can work together in partnership to enhance quality of community life. Same as Psychology M Perspectives on major features of human aging--biological, social, psychological, and humanistic. Introduction to information on range of influences on aging to prepare students for subsequent specialization.

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Same as Gerontology MSL. Lecture, three hours; fieldwork, one hour. What do you say to your parents in conversation? How do you talk to your grandparents? Does your family talk well to one another as group? How do you communicate well with boss who is 30 years older than you?


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Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective
Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective
Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective
Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective
Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective
Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective
Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective Social Welfare Policy and Social Programs: A Values Perspective

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