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B, 41 Google Scholar. Pissart, A. Biuletyn Peryglacjalny 29, — Google Scholar. Rein, R. Arctic and Alpine Res. Sharp, R. Periglacial involutions in Illinois. Journal of Geology 50, — Google Scholar. Vandenberghe, J. Proceed, 4th Inter. Permafrost Conf. Fairbanks, Alaska, — Washington DC Boardman, J.
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London, Zoltai, S. Personalised recommendations. The ANOVA indicates that there is a significant difference in all measurements between metacarpals from different oxygen isotope stages tab. Two clusters of data emerge from the post hoc tests: there are no significant differences between OIS 11, 8 and 7 on the one hand and few between OIS 9 and 6 on the other hand. The first aspect to note is that the two clusters of data that stand out in the statistical analysis also stand out in the diagram: the material of OIS 11, 8 and 7 is larger than that of OIS 9 or 6 on an absolute scale for all measurements.
The material of OIS 11, 8 and 7 is similar in shape. The sagittal keel of the distal epiphysis is relatively well-developed V12, 13 and The material has some primitive evolutionary features, with a large breadth over the supra-articular tuberosities relative to the breadth of the distal epiphysis V10 and This seems to be a reversal of the long-term evolutionary trend of reduction in breadth over the supra-articular tuberosities Eisenmann, In the OIS 11 material, the breadth of the epiphysis is relatively large, and in the OIS 8 material, this breadth is increasing again, in OIS 7 leading to horses with a distal epiphysis of similar shape to those of OIS The relatively narrow articular surface for the magnum V7 is another primitive feature found in the OIS 9 material.
In the same context, the large size of the articular surface for the magnum V7 should be noted. Reference line: Equus hemionus data from table 6. The ANOVA indicates significant differences between the samples of the different oxygen isotope stages for all analysed measurements, except for V8 tab. The length of the OIS 9 material is closer to those of the other oxygen isotope stages, but most other dimensions are clearly smaller. There are more differences in shape than in the metacarpals, with the material of OIS 8 and OIS 7 being the most similar in shape.
The available material has a relatively slender diaphysis V3 and 4 , a broad proximal epiphysis V5 and a well-developed distal epiphysis V10, 11, 12, 13 and As a primitive evolutionary feature, the facet that articulates with the ectocuneiform V7 is relatively weakly developed on the single metatarsal on which this measurement could be taken.
The distal keel is not well-developed V12, 13 and 14 , but the breadth over the supra-articular tuberosities is small relative to the breadth of the distal epiphysis V10 and Another evolutionarily advanced feature is the large facet for the ectocuneiform V7. The facet that articulates with the ectocuneiform V7 is fairly large. In the OIS 6 material, breadths are relatively large V3 and 5 whereas depths are relatively small V4 and 6.
The articular facet for the ectocuneiform is fairly large V7. The distal epiphysis is relatively strongly developed V11, 12, 13 and For most measurements on the OIS 11 material, there are insufficient data to test for normality. The OIS 6 horses have a relatively deep proximal epiphysis V5. Reference line: Equus hemionus data from table 8. Reference line: Equus hemionus data from table The ANOVA indicates that there is a significant difference in all measurements between phalanges from different oxygen isotope stages tab.
As the size and shape of the skeletal elements is influenced by a large number of factors, identifying the causes of a particular change in size or shape is not straightforward. The metatarsals of OIS 9 are relatively larger than the metacarpals, and to a lesser extent, this also holds for the metapodials of OIS 6. The size differences in the first phalanges are much less pronounced, although the limited amount of material precludes any definitive conclusions.
In the dental elements, size differences are small between the OIS 11, 9 and 7 material, whereas the OIS 6 material is clearly smaller. The horses of OIS 9 are characterised by a return to a more primitive morphology. This could signify the migration of a population characterised by retention of or return to more plesiomorphic traits into the British Isles after the intervening glacial period of OIS From OIS 8 onwards, a gradual development of the derived condition can be observed, culminating in the evolutionarily advanced OIS 6 horses.
In the metatarsals, horses from all periods are of fairly advanced morphology, with the oldest horses OIS 11 being the most primitive. The horses of OIS 6 show a flattening of the metapodials, which is an advanced evolutionary feature. In the more advanced material from OIS 7 and OIS 6, the infra-tuberosital segments are smaller relative to the supra-tuberosital segments. As the foreleg carries most of the weight and the hindleg mainly provides propulsion, the adaptations of the metacarpals and metatarsals are expected to differ.
The distal keel of the metacarpals of OIS 11 and 9 is well-developed, whereas in the OIS 8, 7 and 6 horses, the distal keel is weakly developed. However, on the metacarpals of the OIS 11 and 9 horses only the distal epiphysis is strongly developed.
On the metatarsals, both epiphyses are well-developed in the OIS 11 horses, but in the OIS 9 horses, the distal epiphysis is only weakly developed. Alternatively, the scarcity of large carnivores in OIS 9 deposits Schreve, may indicate lower levels of predation, resulting in a larger population competing for the same resources and a reduced selection pressure for larger body size. However, it should be kept in mind that there are only a few sites known that date from OIS 9 and therefore our knowledge of the fauna of this period is limited. The dental elements of these horses are relatively large when compared to the relative size of the limb elements due to the large genotypic influence on their size Hillson, Instances of disproportion between dental elements and metapodials, with the teeth being either larger or smaller than expected from the size of the metapodials, have been observed in various Pleistocene assemblages Eisenmann, The Type I protoconal index of the OIS 9 material is indicative of temperate conditions, which is in agreement with other environmental data for this period.
The protoconal index, which points to a Type II horse adapted to cold climatic conditions, is in agreement with this. The small size of the horses might have been induced by the severe conditions in which they lived, and this may imply a certain degree of isolation from populations in continental Europe. The changes in size and shape do not appear to follow a unidirectional trend, but instead fluctuations can be observed, which can be interpreted as ecomorphological responses to the fluctuating climate of the late Middle Pleistocene.
However, our knowledge of how climatic factors, coupled with characteristics of the horse population, horse behaviour and the composition of the fauna as a whole, influenced the size and shape of the horses is limited. Direct correlations of specific changes in size and shape with specific environmental factors or aspects of the animal community are therefore preliminary.
Changes in the dental elements, however, follow a different pattern from the changes in the leg bones. Because dental elements are influenced less by environmental factors and are more strongly controlled by genetic mechanisms Hillson, , they are less phenotypically plastic. The size of the dental elements thus remains relatively stable over the course of the late Middle Pleistocene, with the exception being the OIS 6 horses, which can be characterised as a population under severe stress in a marginal environment.
Caballoid horses and late Middle Pleistocene biostratigraphy of the British Isles
Changes in the protoconal index can be regarded as reflecting adaptation to differences in diet between cold and temperate conditions, although results for the analysis of this characteristic can be equivocal. However, the horses of OIS 11, 8 and 7 are relatively similar in size and shape, although the limited amount of material does not allow for a definitive characterisation of the material of OIS 11 and OIS 8. When horse remains are analysed for biostratigraphic purposes, results from various skeletal elements need to be considered in conjunction, and of course all available information from other sources e.
Analysis of horse remains from the continent might shed light on migratory patterns and the processes that led to differences between the faunas of the British Isles and continental Europe. The research on the British material shows that horse remains can aid in establishing a biostratigraphic scheme. Study of horse remains from mainland Europe can potentially help solving the dating controversies surrounding some of the most important sites dating from the late Middle Pleistocene. Journal of archaeological science, 32 , Diversity and distributions, 5 , Geological society special report, 23 , Bath, p.
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Maddy, M. Woodward eds. Lisse, Diese hydromorphen Bodenbildungen sind typischerweise an Materialwechsel gebunden und setzen lateral nach kurzer Distanz aus. During the Riss time north of Memmingen only the Iller valley was active. Im heutigen Illertal stellt der Woringer Schotter die erste ausgedehnte Schmelzwasserterrasse dar, die nach der Donaueiszeit gebildet wurde. Auffallend ist seine.
Trotz dieser Schwierigkeiten verdeutlicht das vorstehend beschriebene Beispiel, dass die Morphostratigraphie gute Informationen zur Ablagerungsreihenfolge zu erbringen vermag. Sofern sich datierbare Profile finden lassen, wird die regionale Chronologie zur Chronostratigraphie erweitert. Im Iller-LechGebiet ist diese Datenbasis noch so gering, dass morphostratigraphische Befunde bislang einen hohen Stellenwert behalten haben. LINK, A. JERZ, H. International Stratigraphic Guide - An abridged version.
Sedimentations- und Verwitterungsphasen bei Hinterschmalholz Regierungsbezirk Schwaben. SINN, P. Heidelberger Geogr. Empfehlungen Richtlinien zur Handhabung der stratigraphischen Nomenklatur. Im Vergleich mit anderen Pollendiagrammen scheiden Eem, Holstein s. Comparison with other pollen diagrams shows that Eemian, Holsteinian s.
Related Quaternary glaciations: extent and chronology, Deel 3
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