The Historical Dictionary of United States-Caribbean Relations contains a chronology, an introduction, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over cross-referenced entries on important personalities, politics, economy, foreign relations, religion, and culture.
She is a specialist in foreign policy, diplomacy and development, particularly with respect to small states and specifically Caribbean states as well as the nations of the global south in general. Clifford E. A second professed the U.
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The Monroe Doctrine established a unilateral policy. In the period — U. In the s and s, when dissident Cubans and U. The Texas Revolution — and the annexation of Texas as a state in , U. In the s U. Fears of U. During the U. Elsewhere, the United States tried to mediate the war between Cubans and Spaniards that raged from to Afterward, U.
The French commenced to dig a canal across Panama, and in a revolt in Panama prompted U. In U. Secretary of State James G. Blaine proposed a Pan-American conference to end the War of the Pacific — between Chile and the allies Bolivia and Peru and to promote closer commercial ties. Blaine's efforts collapsed under Chilean opposition, but when he again became secretary of state , he hosted such a conference in Washington, D.
In the s heightened U. Most Americans believed that U.
The U. The terms ran afoul of Colombian nationalist sentiment, and the U.
FORMATIVE ERA (1776–1830)
In the — Venezuelan debt crisis, in which Germany, Great Britain, and Italy blockaded the Venezuelan coast, Roosevelt voiced concern over European intervention in the hemisphere. He used the Venezuelan debt imbroglio as justification to meddle in the debt-plagued Dominican Republic and announced the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, whereby the United States upheld the doctrine by intervening in Latin America to "prevent European intervention.
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For three years, Americans ruled Cuba. Dollar diplomacy presumably offered the United States yet another means of asserting its own variation of "enlightened" administration over unruly and warring governments. The approach rarely worked, however. In Taft dispatched a military force to Nicaragua, and a U. President Woodrow Wilson — condemned "gunboat diplomacy" and dollar diplomacy as imperialism, but his determination to advance U. Though pledging to seek no territorial concessions from Latin American republics, Wilson tried to influence the course of the Mexican Revolution — , dispatched an occupying force to Veracruz in April , and, following the raid by the revolutionary Pancho Villa on Columbus, New Mexico , in , sent the Pershing Expedition deep into northern Mexico.
In the Wilson administration launched a nineteen-year de facto military occupation of Haiti and in established an eight-year military governance of the Dominican Republic. Latin American intellectual and literary figures decried the North American cultural threat to Latin traditions. The United States emerged in the s as the overwhelmingly dominant economic presence in Latin America and, relying on its economic strength, began to dismantle its empire in the Caribbean, send financial advisers to Latin America, and negotiate more positively with Mexico in petroleum disputes brought on by the Mexican constitution of In the s President Franklin D.
Roosevelt — professed a new policy toward Latin America based on nonintervention, noninterference, and reciprocity. At the inter-American conference at Montevideo, Uruguay, in , the Roosevelt administration pledged nonintervention, though at the time Roosevelt's emissary to revolutionary Cuba, Sumner Welles , was effectively charting Cuba's internal political affairs.
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Roosevelt signed new economic agreements with Latin American governments in an effort to restore U. After , U. There was a serious crisis with Mexico over that nation's expropriation of foreign petroleum companies in The United States obtained defense sites, critical in Brazil, and virtually incorporated the Mexican economy into the U. Latin American rural workers, especially in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, migrated to urban factories.
Mexicans worked on U.
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The formal culmination of the regional approach was the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance and the Organization of American States In the postwar era, the United States shifted its political and economic concerns to Europe and Asia and tried to break down hemispheric economic barriers to U. Latin American leaders pressed for increased U. Marshall Plan for war-torn Europe.
After the Korean War erupted, the United States emphasized regional and bilateral security agreements and became increasingly concerned about Communist influence in Latin America. In the Central Intelligence Agency brought down a non-Communist leftist government in Guatemala; in , following several years of civil strife and a protracted guerrilla struggle, Fidel Castro toppled the government of dictator Fulgencio Batista in Cuba.
Castro vowed to restructure Cuba along Marxist lines and to de-Americanize the island's political culture. Kennedy 's — first hemispheric crisis. Arts and Artists in Latin America. Y68 G36 N7 L Latin American and Caribbean artists of the modern era : a biographical dictionay of more than 12, persons Call Number: Ref N S45 D7 E63 Latin American Dramatists since by Tony A. D7 H37 F53 C
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