The book presents emerging challenges, technology, and concepts that address integration of salinity management into comprehensive site environmental or sustainable management systems, use of halophytic turfgrasses for non-traditional purposes, integration of geospatial and geostatistical concepts and technology, and integration of new sensor technology into daily management paradigms.
Outlining a holistic BMP approach, the book incorporates scientific principles and practical management recommendations and details specific salinity challenges and the logic behind each BMP strategy for salinity management, with an emphasis on actual field problems. The book is formatted for flexible use, with stand-alone chapters that include outlines for quick review of a topic for those requiring only a basic understanding as well as in-depth discussions of the science and practical aspects for those seeking a more rigorous treatment.
It supplies a single source for all the information required to identify and manage diverse types of salinity stresses. Carrow and Duncan, who have published and lectured extensively on soil salinity and sodicity issues and the management of such soils over the past 15 years or so. Carrow and Duncan have created an update to their previous book published in entitled Salt-Affected Turfgrass Sites. This makes the text usable by scientists in turfgrass management and practitioners in the field.
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Do not incorporate gypsum to remediate soil salinity. Gypsum should be used only to remediate sodic or saline sodic soil conditions. Zinc, reported in parts per million ppm , is rarely deficient in turf. A number below 20 ppm is considered low, while 20 to 50 ppm is sufficient for managing turf. If a deficiency occurs, elemental zinc Zn 2 can be applied as a minor nutrient application. Zinc toxicity on turf is more common than deficiencies, especially if composts containing high levels of zinc are used.
Iron, reported in parts per million ppm , is plentiful in our soil but often deficient in turfgrass and other ornamental plants because it often becomes unavailable in alkaline soil. Iron Fe is an element found in several primary plant molecules, including chloroplasts and hemoglobin, which are responsible for photosynthesis and oxygen transport respectively. According to that method, a test result at or less than 2. For iron-deficient turf, a foliar application of actual iron can be applied at 0.
Salinity Tolerance Turfgrass: History and Prospects
Use the lower rate when the air temperature exceeds 85 F, and avoid foliar applications of iron when the turf is under stress because burning can occur. Also avoid foliar applications if rain is imminent. Do not irrigate for three to four hours afterward to allow the leaves to absorb the iron. You also can use iron sulfate at 0. Green-up should occur in 24 to 48 hours and last about two weeks.
If the soil pH is greater than 7. The only method to remediate an iron-deficient soil is to acidify it with sulfur. Refer to the sulfur section and Table 1 of this publication for rates. Kentucky bluegrass can appear to be chlorotic after green-up in early spring in North Dakota because the roots are too cold to absorb an adequate amount of iron. The turf will green up uniformly once the soil warms to 50 to 55 F.
Like iron, manganese Mn is an element involved in the synthesis of chlorophyll. Turfgrass will become chlorotic while subjected to a Mn deficiency because it will cause a disruption of the photosynthetic process, which leads to yellowing of the leaf tissue. Deficiencies can occur on alkaline soils with a high pH.
Manganese can be applied as a granular fertilizer or a fertilizer minor. Minors consist of the following essential nutrients: boron B , chlorine Cl , copper Cu , iron Fe , nickle Ni , manganese Mn , molybdenum Mo and zinc Zn but are required by the plant in lesser amounts. Manganese also can be applied in a liquid foliar formulation. Copper is reported in ppm. Most soils typically contain between 1 and 40 ppm of total copper.
Managing Saline Soils - - Extension
If the amount of available copper in the soil is less than 0. If a deficiency is detected, apply a foliar application at 0.
Copper is used for chlorophyll formation and also catalyzes several chemical reactions. Deficiencies are uncommon but can occur on heavily leached sands and organic soils because of strong binding sites that fix the copper molecules, making them unavailable for root uptake Carrow et. To avoid toxic levels, do not apply copper unless a true deficiency has been identified.
Apply a foliar treatment to a small area and observe the response for a week before treating the entire site. The lab uses calcium phosphate Ca H 2 PO 4 2 to extract sulfate from the soil. The Clean Air Act and subsequent amendments to that law imposed reductions on sulfur dioxide SO 2 emissions. Prior to the Clean Air Act, soil sulfur deficiencies were considered rare in the U. At that time, many industries in the U.
The new federal regulations require fossil fuel-burning industries to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions by employing a number of strategies, including the installation of more efficient lime scrubbers in their smokestacks to reduce ozone-depleting gas emissions, including sulfate and sulfur dioxide, into the atmosphere.
Sulfur dioxide deposition in North Dakota within recent years has ranged from 0. Therefore, sulfur applications may be required in North Dakota to prevent deficiencies. Elemental and other reduced forms of sulfur must be oxidized by soil microbes into sulfate before it is available for root uptake.
This oxidation may take a year or more. Therefore, sulfate fertilizers such as ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate K 2 SO 4 or magnesium sulfate MgSO 4 should be applied to treat a sulfur deficiency because they are immediately available to the turf. An application of 0. A foliar application of 0.
The application of sulfur should provide a greening response within one to three days if it is deficient Carrow et al, e. Chloride is involved in cell multiplication in leaf tissue and water splitting during the photosynthetic process. Because the required levels are so low, deficiencies in turf are almost nonexistent.
The required amount is typically provided by rain.
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Draining chlorinated swimming pool water on your lawn is unlikely to damage turfgrass or provide any beneficial effects. Carrow, R. Best management practices for saline and sodic turfgrass soils: Assessment and reclamation. Waddington and P. Turfgrass soil fertility and chemical problems. Wiley, Hoboken, N. Fagerness, M. Keeley and D.
Related Best Management Practices for Saline and Sodic Turfgrass Soils: Assessment and Reclamation
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